Jennifer Jameson, Instructor
MAT 160-Introduction to Statistics
Assignment: Complete a research project on a topic of your choice.
Nutritional Knowledge of College Students
The topic of the research is nutritional knowledge. Are athletes more nutritionally savvy than non-athletes? Who is more likely to know an appropriate daily caloric intake, or other essential nutritional facts? The study compares individuals' estimates of how many calories or other nutrients they need with age and activity-based guidelines.
Null Hypothesis(Ho): µ 1 = µ 2
Non-athletic college students will be equally knowledgeable about caloric intake and dietary guidelines as college athletes
Hyuothesis(H1) µ 1 > µ 2
Athletic college students are more nutritionally knowledgeable than non-athletic college students are.
The study will be a two-sample independent study to determine whether activity level (athlete vs. non-athlete) relates to nutritional knowledge. The researcher will collect two random samples of college students who attend Northern Arizona University. For randomization purposes, the researcher will survey athletes involved in a variety of sports. The subjects will be recruited before or after classes, near the university union, and in the residence halls.
Subjects will complete a survey (located in the end of the report) consisting of eleven questions. The first question will be demographic to determine whether or not the student is an athlete. The remaining ten questions include knowledge-based nutritional questions. The content of the questions will be basic nutritional information concerning daily nutritional requirements and caloric needs.
All of the subjects will complete the survey on a voluntary basis. They will be requested not to ask for outside help in answering the survey questions. For this study, the subject will be considered an athlete if the individual participates in varsity sports at the collegiate level. It will not be taken into consideration if a non-athlete participates in club, intramurals or other organized sports.
The overall population of the study are students of Northern Arizona University (NAU). The first population consists of all NAU students who compete in varsity-level athletics. The second population consists of all NAU students who do not compete in varsity-level athletics.
One sample consists of a random selection of fifteen NAU students who compete in varsity-level athletics.
The other sample consists of a random selection of fifteen NAU students who do not compete in varsity-level athletics.
Independent Variable: activity level (athlete vs non-athlete) Dependent variable: nutritional knowledge
µ1= The average nutritional knowledge among college athletes based on the survey scores from the sample.
µ2= The average nutritional knowledge among non-athletic college students based on the survey scores from the sample.
The level of significance for this study (α) will be 1%. The level of significance is low because it is important that if the null hypothesis is rejected, that it is in fact false. In other words, a low level of significance reduces the chances of a Type I error.
Ho: µ1 = µ2
Hi: µ1 > µ2
The data values were entered into a calculator and using the STAT the following calculations and information for the sample results were determined:
Athletes: Mean(x-bar1): 6.666667 Standard deviation(s1): 1.7182
Non-athletes: Mean (x-bar2): 5.6 Standard deviation (s2): 1.6388
x-bar1 - x-bar2 = 6.67 - 5.6 = 1.07
t = (x-bar1 x-bar1 - x-bar?) - (u 1 -u2) = 1.739 (test statistic)
√ [(S12/n1) + (s22/n2)] Using a calculator: Fort > 1.739 (µ1 > µ2)
P-value = 0.0464
The p-value 0.0464 is greater than the level of significance, 0.01 meaning the null hypothesis is not rejected.
The test statistic, 1.739 is not greater than the critical value t, so we fail to reject the null hypothesis.
At a 1 % level of significance (α) the study lacks sufficient evidence to prove that athletic college students at NAU are more nutritionally knowledgeable than non-athletes. The alternate hypothesis was wrong and the null hypothesis fails to be rejected.
Interestingly enough, if the statistical analysis was conducted using a 5% level of significance (α= 0.05), the p-value (0.0464) would be less than the chosen level of significance. At this level of significance, the null hypothesis would have been rejected.
Thank you for taking the time to complete the survey. It is completely voluntary and the results are anonymous.
Check the answer choice that applies to you.
· I am an athlete net NAU, I participate in varsity sports net the collegiate level:
□ Yes □ No
Read the following ten questions concerning nutrition and check the best answer choice.
Please do not consult outside sources to choose your answer.
1. Sally is a 5'4" eighteen-year old student. In addition to walking to her classes
every day, she gets exercise net least three times a week by jogging around her
neighborhood (2-miles). Approximately what is her recommended daily caloric
□ 1,000 - 1,500 calories
□ 1,800 - 3,000 calories
□ 3,200 - 3,500 calories
2. If you take in more calories than you consume, you will gain weight.
□ True □ False
3. Which contains more grams of fat a Big Mac from McDonneld's or an Original Whopper from Burger King?
□ Big Mac □ Original whopper
4. Which of the following items from the Taco Bell menu has the most calories:
□ Taco supreme □ Bean burrito
□ Nachos Bell Grande □ Fiesta Taco Salad
5. About how many calories are in a Starbuck's grande frappucino (coffee drink)?
□ 80 calories
□ 125 calories
□ 400 calories
□ 1500 calories
6. To maintain a caloric balance (no weight loss) a 175 lb. person requires more calories than 105 lb. individual.
7. Vitamin D can be obtained by all of the following except:
□ Milk □ Sun Exposure □ Oranges
□ All of the above answer choices provide Vitamin D
□ None of the answer choices provides Vitamin D
8. All of the following are major sources of carbohydrates except:
□ Crackers □ Carrots □ Peanuts
9. Fiber is a major source of energy
□ True □ False
10. Low-fat or nonfat foods always contain less calories than full-fat foods.
□ True □ False
The survey questions are based on research through MEDLINE and SPORT DISCUS databases. The researcher has cited 10 sources.
Database: MEDLINE, SPORTDISCUS Keywords: nutritional requirements, dailycaloric requirements, energy balance, dietary guidelines
1. Bonci, L.
Eating for optimal fitness. Luxbacher, J., Total fitness for women: proven
strategies to trim down, firm up and get fit, Terre Haute, Ind., Wish Publishing. 133-150, 2002.
This article discusses the roles of FOOD and NUTRITION in relation to PHYSCIAL FITNESS.
2. Carpenter, R.A. Nutrition. Jackson, A. W., Physical activity for
health and fitness. 3: 115-139;141;145-156;357-362,
This article includes the daily DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS and nutritional requirements in reference to the food pyramid.
3. Eller, D. The
active woman's guide to eating: a diet of your own. Muscle and fitness hers. 4(9): 96-98;116-117,
This article provides an update of the DIETARY GUIDELINES for AMERICANS.
4. How much exercise, how much sugar, how much fiber?. Tufts
University health & nutrition letter. 20(9):
This article explains the DIETARY and PHYSICAL ACTIVITY guidelines according to the National Academy of Science.
5. Kennedy, E. and Goldberg, J. What are American children eating? Implications for public policy. Nutr Rev. 53(5):111-26, 1995.
This article discusses new FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS, their relationship to the DIETARY GUIDELINES, and their impact on CHILDREN'S HEALTH
6. Lachance, P.A. and Fisher, M.C. Reinvention
of the food guide pyramid to promote health. Adv Food Nutr Res. 49:1-39, 2005.
This article involves the recent changes to the FOOD PYRAMID, the recommended DAILY NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS and SERVING SIZES since the 1995 altercations to these national nutritional guidelines
7. Lee, P.R. and Meyers, L.D. Nutrition and physical
activity perspectives for all Americans:
government and private sector partnerships for the twenty-first century. World
Rev Nutr Diet. 81:108-13,
This article discusses the current ideas concerning NUTRITION and PHYSICAL ACTIVITY for ALL AMERICANS
8. Lundell, L. Nutritional
knowledge, attitudes, and practices and the actual dietary intakes of female college athletes. Microform Publications: College of Human
Development and Performance, University of Oregon. 1993.
This research involved DIETARY INTAKE of COLLEGE FEMALE ATHLETES and their knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning nutrition.
9. Payette, H. and Shatenstein, B. Determinants of healthy eating in communitydwelling elderly people. Can J Public Health. 96(3):27-31; 30-5,
This article outlines the current knowledge and research in the area of determinants of HEALTHY EATING among SENIORS in Canada.
10. Stonehouse, J. Energy balance - the interrelationship of weight control and physical activity. Periscope. 13(1): 28-30;29-32, 1981.